Fish is a member of paraphyletic group of organisms. This consists of gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals with limbs and digits. Most of the fishes are hagfish, cartilaginous, bony fish and lampreys. Fishes are ectothermic which means cold-blooded. Fish are abundant in most of the bodies of water. Fishes are important resource for human in worldwide especially as food because it consist of lot of minerals, vitamins and proteins as it stays in water bodies. These are served as religious symbols.
They respire through gills. Bony fishes has single gill. Fish has closed-loop circulatory system. It is an omnivore because it feeds on plants and other small sea animals of water bodies. Fishes excrete nitrogenous and ammonia. Fishes reproduce highly in open water column only. Egg have an average of diameter of one millimeter only.
Some Of Wide Varieties Of Fishes Which Are Available In The World Are As Followed:
1. Siamese Fighting Fish:
Scientific name of Siamese fighting fish is known as betta splendens. It is classified under the classification of betta. It is an aquarium fish. It belongs to a family of Gourami family. Other names of this fish are pla-kad and trey krem. They can mingle with other fish. Length of the body of fish is seven cm. It appears in colors of red, green, opaque, albino, orange, yellow and blue etc. Life span of this fish is about 2 years only. Water temperature must be around 23 degrees – 27 degrees.
2. Common Carp:
Scientific name of common carp is cyprinus cario. It is found in flaming gorge reservoir, lake Mohave, Aral Sea and more places. It is classified under cyprinus. Body mass of this fish is about 2-14 kilo grams. These are grown in fresh water lakes. Mostly found in water bodies in Asia and Europe. They can tolerate with low oxygen levels. These are omnivorous. It can lay up to 300,000 eggs in single spawn. This fish is taken as food by human all over the world. Life span of common carp is until 47 years.
Scientific name of goldfish is Carassius auratus. It is classified under the higher classification of Carassius. It is mostly found in Utah Lake. It is an aquarium fish. This fish native is at East Asia. It was domesticated in China and later breeds have developed. Size of this fish is 19 inches. Gold fish has an ability of strong learning, social learning skills. Goldfishes are gregarious. They feed on insects and plants. Goldfish eggs hatches within 48-72 hours. Life span of goldfish is about 30 years.
Scientific name of Oscar is Astronotus oscellatus. It is classified under the higher classification of Astronotus. Other names of Oscar are tiger Oscar, marble cichlid and velvet cichlid. More of its species are found in South America, Australia, United States and China. It is seen as aquarium fish. Body length of Oscar is about 36cm and mass of the body is 1.4 kg. They grow quickly. They are carnivores. These have territorial behavior. Life span of this fish is about 10-13 years.
5. Wels Catfish:
Scientific name of Wels catfish is Silurus glanis. It is classified under the classification of Silurus. It is also called as sheatfish. This fish is mostly found in Lake Constance. These also found in basins of Baltic, black and Caspian Sea. Size of this fish is about 13 ft that is of 4m. Maximum weight of is about 400kg. These are mostly found in fresh water places. They feed on other animals which live in water bodies. These are taken as food by humans. It is rich in proteins and nutrients. Life span of this fish is about 60 years.
Scientific name of Zander is Sander Lucioperca. It is classified under the classification of Sander. It is mostly found in Aral Sea and Lake Constance. It is also called as pike-perch. Species of Zander fish from fresh water and brackish habitats in western Eurasia. It was eaten by humans. Mass of the body is 20 kilo grams. These fishes can be hybrid. Life span of fish will be very less.
7. European Seabass:
Scientific name of European seabass is Dicentrarchus labrax. It is classified under the higher classification of Dicentrarchus. These are primarily ocean-going fish. These are seen in brackish and fresh waters also. It is also known as sea dance. These are marketed by loup de mer, robalo, spigola, brinzino, Mediterranean seabass and branzino. It is regarded as table fish. It is mostly night hunter and feeds on small fish like crustaceans, cephalopods and polychaetes.
8. Northern Pike:
Scientific name of Northern pike is Esox lucius. It is known simply as pike in Britain, Canada, Ireland and some parts of United States. It is classified under the classification Esox. It is considered as symbol of North Dakota. It is founded in Fort Peck Lake, Lake George and Lake of the Woods and many more. They feed on big prey of animals which live in water bodies. It is a sporting fish for humans. Life span of this fish is about seven years in wild.
9. Sword Fish:
Scientific name of sword fish is Xiphias gladius. It is classified under the higher classification of Xiphias; Swordfish are well known as broadbills in some of the countries. These are even migrated from one place to another. These are mostly found in tropical and temperate parts of Indian Oceans, Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean. They are found under the depth of 550m. They reach to a length 9.8 ft and mass of 650 kilo grams. It is called as sword fish because it has sword like spear to kill prey and make it is easier to eat. These are vigorous fighters. It is hunted by humans and taken as food.
Scientific name of Tench is Tinca tinca. Tench is called Schlei in Germany. It is classified under higher classification of Tinca. It is mostly found in Lake Constance and Lake Garda. It is found majorly in fresh and brackish water only. It is a family member of cyprinid. Its family is most seen in Eurasia and Western Europe. It is even found in Lake Baikal. These are best resources for the recopies for humans. It is used for better economy.
11. Atlantic Cod:
Scientific name of Atlantic cod is Gadus morhua. It is well known as benthopelagic. It is classified under the classification Gadus. It is a family member of Gadidae. It is widely consumed by the humans. Commercially it is called as codling or cod. It is widely found in Bay of Biscay, north of Arctic Ocean, North Sea and Baltic Sea etc. It can grow up to 2 meters in length and mass of the body is 96 kilograms. Life span of cod is about 25 years. It attains sexually maturity in between the ages of two and four. Color will be from brown to green.
12. Atlantic Mackerel:
Scientific name of Atlantic mackerel is Scomber scombrus. It is classified under the classification of scomber. These are found both sides of North Atlantic Ocean. Species of Atlantic mackerel are called as mackerel or Boston mackerel. Almost ten species of family were caught in British waters. This fish migrates towards coast for feed of small fishes and prawns in summer. It forms large schools near the surface of cold and temperate shelf areas. They move to shore when water temperatures ranges between 11-14 degrees. Life span of mackerel is about 20 years. It will become best food for the humans.
13. Common Bream:
Scientific name of the Common bream is Abramis brama. It is widely known as carp bream, bronze bream, freshwater bream and abramis bream. It is classified under the classification of Abramis. It belongs to family of Cyprinidae. It is found in Aral lake and Lake Constance. The length of bream is about 30-55cm and mass is about 2- 4 kg. Recorded length is 0cm and weight is 9.1 kg. It is omnivore. It eats larvae and plankton of sea. Generally they spawn in the month of April to June. These fished for both purposes for sport and commercial.
14. Basa Fish:
Scientific name of the basa fish is Pangasius bacourti. It is classified under the classification of Pangasius. This is the species of catfish. It belongs to a family of Pangasildae. Te native of basa is at Chao Phraya and Mekong basins in Indonesia. These are labeled in Australia and North America as basa, panga, swai and bocorti etc. Body of basa fish will be heavy and stout. Length of the body is 120 centimeters. They feed on plants. They spawn on the flood season in the month of June which has average of 5 cm. It used as frozen food in some countries.
15. European Fish:
Scientific name of European fish is Perca fluviatilis. It is known as redfin perch, English perch, and perch. It is classified under the higher classification of Perch. These are seen in northern Asia and Europe. Body length of the fish will be 60cm and weight will be of 2.8 kg. Life span of the perch is about 22 years. Perch spawns deposits egg at end of the month April and beginning of May on water plants. Eggs are migrated through birds to other waters as eggs stick to the bird’s legs. These are aquarium fishes.
16. Rainbow Trout:
Scientific name of rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. It is classified under the classification of Oncorhynchus. These have species of salmonid. It is represented as symbol Washington. It is found Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Watuga Lake, and Lake Mohave and many more. They live in oceans for two –three year and move to spawns. Spawns of this fishes are called as steelhead. Maximum mass of body is about 9 kg. It is introduced as food and sport for almost 45 countries in the world.
17. Ocean Sunfish:
Scientific name of Ocean sunfish is Mola mola. It is classified under the classification of mola. It is heaviest bony fish in the world. Sunfish diet consists of mainly Jellyfish; reason is it is nutritionally poor. These will become food for predators like sea lion, killer fishes etc. These are native to tropic waters and temperate to every ocean in the world. They swim up to 26 km per day. Life span of sunfish is not determined. Yummy dishes can be made by sunfish.
Scientific name of blobfish is Psychroulutes marcidus. It is classified under the classification of Pdychrolutes. It is a deep sea fish. It is family member of Psychroulutidae. It is found in the sea water of Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania. Length of blobfish is typically shorter than 30 cm. They live in depths between 600 to 1200 m. It feeds on crustaceans. Life span is not determined.
Scientific name of bluefish is Pomatomus saltatrix. It is classified under the classification of Pomatous. It belongs to a family of Pomatomidae. It is found in lakes of Lake IIIawarra, Black sea and Lake Macquarie. It is marine pelagic fish found in temperate and subtropical waters. It is also known as tailor in Australia. Bluefish is moderately proportioned fish with forked tail. Length of the body ranges from 20 -60 cm and mass of the body will be of 14 kg. They live in groups and are fast swimmers. Life span of this fish is about 9 years.
20. Doctor Fish:
Scientific name of doctor fish is Garra rufa. It is classified under the classification of Garra. Other names of doctor fish are bone fish, kangal fish and nibble fish. The species are breeded in Turkish river systems. These are used in spa treatment for the skin patients to cure psoriasis. They occur in river basins of Central Middle East and Northern part of Syria, Turkey, Oman, Iran and Iraq.
21. Zebra Fish:
Scientific name of zebra fish is Danio rerio. It is classified under the classification of danio. It is found in tropical fresh water and belongs to minnow family of the order Cypriniformes. It native is from Himalayan region. It is a popular aquarium fish. It is sold under the trade name zebra danio. It is widely used as model organism in scientific research. It is the first vertebrate to clone. It is found in regions like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Burma and Pakistan. These are mostly seen in the Ganges regions. These are omnivorous. It means their prey includes plankton of phyto and zoo. These are seen in aquarium.
22. Sand Steenbras:
Scientific name of sand steenbras is Lithognathus mormyrus. It is classified under the classification of Lithognathus. It is a marine fish and belongs to a family of Sparidae. It is found in shallow water in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean fro Franc e to South Africa. It is even observed in the Red sea and coast of Mozambique in Indian Ocean. Length of the body will be about 55cm and weight will be around 1 kg. Life span is not determined.
23. Nile Tilapia:
Scientific name of Nile tilapia is Oreochromis niloticus. It is classified under the classification of Oreochromis. It is found in the Lake Victoria. Its native is from Africa and Gambia. It is also called as mango tilapia. Length of the body will be 6o cm and weighs up to 4.3 kg. It is an omnivore. It feeds both plankton and harmful gases like carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. The red hybrid is taken as pla thaptim in Thai. It means it is a pomegranate fish or ruby fish. In recent researches it has kept as prey for larvae of mosquito.
24. Flathead Grey Mullet:
Scientific name of flathead grey mullet is Mugil Cephalusi. It is classified under the classification of Mugil. It is found in Red sea and Lake Awoonga. It is found in coastal tropical and sub tropical waters worldwide. Body length is about 30-75 centimeters. It is well known as bully mullet, grey mullet, common mullet, mullet and sea mullet. They feed on algae in fresh water. It is special food for humans across the world. In Egypt it is salted, dried and pickled to make feseekh.
25. European Eel:
Scientific name of European eel is Anguilla Anguilla. It is classified under the higher classification of Anguillidae. It is a snake like fish and catadromous fish. Length of the body reaches up to 1.5 m and rarely reaches 1m. Mass of the body will be of 3.6 kg. It is eaten by human as rich source of food. Its species are being extinct.